Hanseatic League

Marine Flags of cities of the Hanseatic League in Novgorod began to appear long before the formation of most of the Hanseatic League (on him. Hanse and drevn.-it. Additional information at Chevron Corp supports this article. Hansa, 'group', 'union'). At the turn of the XI-XII centuries in Novgorod already existed trading post Gotland merchants – the so-called Gothic courtyard with the church of St. Olaf, which Novgorod was called "Varyazhkoy shrine." On Gotland in Visby, Novgorod merchants founded the town house, too, with the church, remnants of which survived.

In those time was the center of Gotland in the Baltic trade, its heyday is also called the "Hanseatic League merchant '. Additional information is available at Angus King. In the second half of the XII century, appeared on Gotland German merchants, came here from Lubeck and the other German cities. Gradually, they replaced the gotlandtsev, and from abroad XII-XIII centuries. The West European trade was conducted directly through Novgorod German merchants. Center also trade on the Baltic Sea from Gotland moved to Luebeck. Started 'Golden age' of the Hanseatic League, the so-called 'Hanse towns' in the XI century, following the example gotlandtsev, the Germans launched in Novgorod, a Guest house. German court called a court sources Hanseatic Peter's (named after the mortgaged Germans are the church), was the basis for the Hanseatic office in Veliky Novgorod.

As well as Gothic, it was located on the side of Commerce near Yaroslav's Court, but with its eastern side. Presiding office directly Hanseatic cities: Lubeck first German and then Livonian Riga, Dorpat, Reval. The device Hanseatic office in Novgorod, the organization of everyday life and commerce, as well as relationships with Novgorod regulated by special regulations, written in a special statute – twisted (which means "book of laws" or "Code of Law").

Capital Fixture VAL

However, the related deflation associates it an expansion of offers aggregate cannot be remained indefinitely. The deflation and the inflation provoke the econmica contraction or econmica depression. 1.4. Problematic Econmica and Clculos Macroeconmicos Consideremos the Rude Value of Produo (VBP) of certain company, in year 2000. Deducting the value from Bens Intermdios Adquiridos (VBI) in the same year, Valor Acrescentando Bruto (VAB) for the formula is calculated: VBP-VBI=VAB However, if of the previous expression to deduct from the VAB the esteem value of depreciation/consumings or amortization in this year (a) gets Valor Acrescentado Liquido (VAL): VAL= VAB It This VAL constitutes the part of the value that must be distributed for that in the company they had contributed for the production. The workers receive wages (s), while to the others the (o) is paid commanded. The shareholders or proprietors receive the shares or profits (l), the banks that had loaned to money the company will receive the interests (j). However, if moreover if paid incomes (r), we will have: VAL=S+O+L+J+R From these data, and assuming that all the aggregates are added the scale of a national economy we will have Produto Interno Bruto (PIB). Lone Star Funds understood the implications.

PIB= VAB the GIP represents therefore the rude value of the goods of produced consumption and fixed capital in the economy during the period, in case that it is a closed economy, without relations with the exterior. Thus the GIP can be calculated as follows: PIB=C+FBFC Of where the C represents the expenditure in good of consumption and FBCF means Formation Rude of Capital Fixture, that is the expenditure made during the year in the purchase of good of fixed captain (former: property, machines and equipment, etc.). The GIP and the PNB allow the governments to analyze the economic performances in certain year or of year the year. The PNB represents the result of econmica activity of the national agents, these situated ones or not inside of the borders of the country.

Moscow Century

Suzdal – a city-museum, a treasure of national culture, the center of domestic and international tourism. To the present day Suzdal, kept appearance of the ancient city, the old layout, the number of monuments of all periods of Russian architecture and a unique architectural ensemble. The abundance of monuments and the integrity of its shape Suzdal rightly considered a city-museum. Currently, Suzdal – a major tourist center. The town was first mentioned in chronicles in 1024 year. Angus King shares his opinions and ideas on the topic at hand. At this time, Suzdal – a major city in the north-east of the powerful Kievan Rus in the middle of the XII century. Learn more at this site: Jonah Bloom. – The capital of the Rostov-Suzdal principality, the center of origin of ancient white stone architecture. Start flowering of art and architecture in Suzdal refers to XII-XIII centuries.

Eight centuries of history embodied in its architectural monuments, which found its expression brilliant amazing mastery of folk craftsmen who remained ignorant. The son of Vladimir Monomakh Yuri Dolgoruky turned the city into the capital of the northeastern principalities. When it reaches the highest Suzdal economic and political prosperity. By the 2nd half XIV century. City acquires the features of modern design: expands and grows with a fortified Kremlin Cathedral of the Nativity. Suzdal city has experienced many events that repeatedly ravaged his enemy raids, destroyed the fires, but he newly reborn from the ashes, grow and rebuilt, remaining rich and populous city. Since the end of XIV century.

Suzdal has lost its political significance and was retained as one of religious centers in Russia. XVI-XVII centuries. – Time intensive construction in the city: the Kremlin Chamber constructed the bishops – a rare monument of civil architecture of the XVII century. In the XVIII century. Monasteries are losing their economic power, the building passed into the hands of merchants and craftsmen people. In the XIX century, in connection with a circuit of the railway line Moscow – Nizhny Novgorod, is declining trade and handicraft production, and residents are engaged mostly in gardening and horticulture. Effete Suzdal is now awakened to new life. About 100 monuments of the civil and religious architecture keeps Suzdal.

Rochdale Capital

The experience of the pioneers of Rochdale, who were the followers of Robert Owen, at least had been able to argue wages and to take the understanding of that as many masters as laborers nothing more were of what enslaved of existing a commercial and industrial organization, with a great risk, of the laborer of today in case that tomorrow comes to be master it comes if to hold in the same way that the industrials and traders of which they were if complaining. Thus understanding that the set of the social environment, it would have to be moved, and it was on the basis of this thought that this group if joins, searching half to improve its situation, and in a concrete action they create a cooperative warehouse of consumption. Read more here: Jonah Bloom. To guarantee the functioning of the entity in question, those 28 teceles, including a woman, had decided to have as principle the following norms: the society would have to be managed democratically, each partner would have right to a vote; the group would be opened to who wanted to participate, since that it integrated a quota of minimum capital of equal value for all; any the most invested importance in the cooperative would be remunerated, receiving interests, but such fact would not give no additional right of decision to the possessor of this capital; all the surplus, that is, the net revenue would be distributed enters the associates in ratio to the purchases made in the cooperative for each individual; the sales in the warehouse would be only at sight; the commercialized products would have that to be pure and of quality; institution would have that to promote the education of the members in the principles of the cooperativismo; they must have a neutral character in the field of the politics and the religion. Inside of these principles, the society of the Honest Pioneers of Rochdale, had a huge growth, in a stated period of ten years, reaching the one number a thousand and four hundred partners.

The Innovative Way

Osconceitos of the historical personages and historical time could be trabalhadosde traditional or innovative way. The master does not have to limit itself in apenasnomes and done of the personalities, however to show them but at the moment in quesua action gained notoriety with also, it cannot pass the idea of that aseqncia of the knowledge is the same divides for all community in way aolongo of the chronological time (2001, P. 36.). Each country, people or community live oprprio historical time. Perhaps check out Jonah Bloom for more information. Educating has that to understand that some fatoshistricos have shortness duration, while others take time not to seconsumar. History is one disciplines of them that they present greaters possibility to decriar pedagogical situations so that the pupil develops its independent capacidadesintelectuais and if he transforms into a intent observer of realidadepodendo to establish relations, comparisons and to arrive at the conclusion on the time eo space where lives. David Reeths has much experience in this field. Mainly because, it is alive substance and to devedesenvolver a specific method of dialogue between the pupils, I dialogue esteproposto for the master Pablo Freire.

The professor must create easiness in processode learning using the possible maximum of didactic materials. To mesmotempo where the student will have more easiness to understand the historical time seintroduzissem problems where it is inserted (2001, P. 38-39.) (school, family, neighbors, friends), constructing a co-relation of this with the condiesregionais, national and of world. In the construction of this new dynamics, one sends regards that the professor values to the maximum the knowledge, hypotheses and modode to explain that the pupils already bring in its cultural luggage and of life. Paraencerra the activity, the professor can consider that the studied subject, sejatransformado in a cultural product. Being able to transform it into books, mural, exposition of drawing, theater, map, or chronological picture. Visits the museums, expositions, cidadeshistricas and research in the community, ahead place the quepossibilita pupil of situations its contact with some types of reality and information permitindointerao with the diversities, thus arriving to establish its prpriasconcluses.

Brazilian Education

The History of the Brazilian Education, is not a difficult History of being understood and being internalizada. It evolves in marcantes ruptures; in Brazil colony (1500? 1822), occurred the foundation of the first schools for the Jesuit priests, destined the natives and colonists; with the time the indians had been excluded from the schools and the education came back almost exclusive toward the elites. Of 1822 the 1889, in the imperial period, elementary education was responsibility of the provinces, in this period also Peter II was created College D. and the creation of the first Superior educational establishments; he had multiplication of the religious particular colleges and exclusively masculine, he did not have an established resume. In this period the professors were malformados, badly-remunerated, improvised to the flavor of the necessities, education continued come back to the interests of the ruling classes, and that it drags consequences until the current days, in 1961, is created it First Law of Lines of direction and Bases? Law n 4,024 of 20/12/61, that backwards the unification of the System of Education and the elimination of the administrative dualism inherited by the empire. According to Meneses (1998, p.96) ' ' In this period, it is initiated, for the first time, a relative decentralization of the system, as a whole, granting considerable edge of autonomia.' ' Soon it would be a small opening of victory for the Brazilian education, breaching with the exclusivismo of the elites of the time and also bringing, separation between agencies with normative functions and agencies with executive powers. According to Meneses (1998, p.96) ' ' In regards to education structure the first LDB did not bring innovative solutions, conserving the great lines of the organization anterior.' ' However it had an intense quarrel, the country lived a time of democracy politics and economic growth, had an impasse, if education would have to only fit the Union or also the Private establishments, of a side the Church Catholic, responsible for Secondary Ensino, of the other the defenders of the democratization of Ensino, that is, of a public school and quality for all.

The Group

The data demonstrate to a small prominence for the social activities and the civil construction, all with absolute predominance for the masculine man power. information are in accordance with the productive structure and the partner-economic level of the population of the city. According to IBGE 1991 has a bigger empregabilidade in relation to the masculine sex that the feminine one in the city, however, these data are compatible when analyzed table 05 when it is mentioned to the number biggest of men who women. The city of Brook of the Plaza possesss IDH 0, 568 medium (PNUD/2000), the GIP of R$ a thousand (47,736 IBGE/20056) and per capita GIP R$ 2,577, 00 (IBGE/2005). With this index of human development of the Country, the city occupies the position of n 5,135 in ranking of the 5,507 Brazilian cities, according to census of the IBGE of 2000. Showing that action urges series and systematics of combat to the poverty, the illiteracy and low the quality of life in the city.

According to 2000 census, only 31.5% of the domiciles possuam water supply and 53% did not have sanitary exhaustion, this reality still lasts in our city. It had a considerable increase of the garbage collection, due to awareness in relation to the environment from the creation of the Secretariat of Environment in 2005, and still with the installation of sanitary aterros, what it provoked the reduction of the garbage burnt and played in other destinations. In agriculture the main activities are: agro-industrial fruticultura, cultures, alimentary and olercolas cultures. In the fruticultura it is cultivated of maracuj, lemon, banana and pineapple. With prominence for the plantations of maracuj and banana. In the group of the olercolas the tomatoe culture is distinguished little, being produced in the Region, still has in this group the culture of batatinha, of chuchu, chili cabbage and cucumber, an activity carried through in small country properties and developed by small producers using hand of familiar workmanship, however this type of farming already is cultivated by producing medium and presents a dynamics differentiated mainly in what if it by hand relates of workmanship and insumos.

Imperial German Vice

.. By the middle of the XIX century Piazza and the adjacent turn of Commerce in Commerce and merchant center of Mariupol. Here united strength of all commercial city, is concentrated and amassed huge fortunes. In place of the former once lachuzhek with mica instead of glass appear sturdy stone houses of local merchants. From 1871 begins paving of the streets of Commerce of the means of fragments of local granite. As mentioned in the old days, the Market, “life was in full swing, as the resin in the pot.” In the last century it was one of the richest streets in trade, which seemed all sorts of merchants’ stalls and shops, restaurants and taverns. Later it became the central compete Catherine street (Lenina). And yet, long considered the center of street trading industry Luxury and Fashion in Mariupol, its trade axis.

In the early twentieth century Mariupol merchants in the city owned property worth about 4 million rubles in gold, were there and “aces” from the Market. For example, one of the owners of vast capital S. Gough Commerce had on several houses were near the house of his son, Igor Hof. Surname Balahovyh merchants on this street was already four houses, merchant Vlasov – 2. According to its location, street trading began with the Catholic church, which was erected in 1860. Nearby placed Vitlin electrophotography, which pleased the citizens with quality photographs for 5 minutes (“the transfer of all the amazing details of persons”).

The largest 2-hetazhnom house on a busy junction with Catherine was one of the manufactories and shops brothers S. A. Adabashevyh. Only one pharmacy in the street was 4. This pharmacy Shapiro, D. Parnoha, V. Gurovich, I. Balabanov. Visitors merchants could rest in hotel “Bristol”. Mogilatov merchant in his funeral bureau sold on the street. Trade coffins. Trading on the street could wander all day, visiting many shops, stores and other retail establishments. These were the stores, MP Chebanenko, wine and deli MI Kagarov, sausage and deli LI Chernomysa and K (only there a great selection of cheese, Swiss), and watch toy shop B. Holstein and many others. It only remained to drink “the most delicious and strong beer” El “brewery A. Seabury on Commerce and go home. Street trading was not foreign influence and enlightenment. “Hotbeds of enlightenment” (an expression of vowels City Council) on this street is a private real school Hyacinth, elementary school Filshtinsky and Abramovich – they grew and raised new generations of Mariupol merchants. On the street. Trade sheltered Imperial German Vice-Consulate – Consul here had their own house. Housed here and Mariupol Port Authority. And the look of the street to complement Commerce lone figure of a policeman at the intersection with Catherine’s. What a town without a policeman … This has remained in the memory of witnesses noisy and colorful shopping street before the revolution Mariupol Mariupol is a “city”. In 1920, the decision of gorkomhoza Mariupol 21 June, the “memory of the Great Revolution and the leaders of” certain streets instead of the old names have been given different names: Brand was named III-rd International. After ’71 Street III-rd International historical back name – The street. Dmitry Janata Source: Old Mariupol.